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Layer: Land rights (select countries) (ID: 1)

Name: Land rights (select countries)

Display Field: name

Type: Feature Layer

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Description: Data compiled under "People" indicate areas over which indigenous peoples or local communities have rights over land and/or certain resources.The laws of many countries separate land rights from resource rights. Legally recognized land rights extend to the land and certain resources associated with the land, depending on the nature of the right. The right to the land and certain resources include some combination of rights of access, use, management, exclusion, and alienation. Similarly, legally recognized resource rights can cover some combination of the right to access, use, manage, exclude, or alienate forests, wildlife, or other resources. Whether rights to the land or resources, the law may recognize their rights in perpetuity or for a limited period of time."Land Rights" refers to areas over which indigenous peoples or local communities enjoy rights to the land and certain resources, whether legally recognized or not. The exact nature of these land rights varies among tenure type and country.The land rights data on GFW, while displayed as a single layer, is assembled on a country-by-country basis from multiple sources. Land rights data displayed on the GFW website vary from country to country by date and data sources. Data may come from government agencies, NGOs, or other organizationsAustralia Aboriginal freehold landsThe inalienable Aboriginal Freehold Lands dataset represents boundary and attribute information for land parcels, granted to incorporated Aboriginal groups through the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act of 1976, which are greater than 40 hectares. Aboriginal Land is private property owned under special Freehold title. It is inalienable, meaning it cannot be bought, acquired, or forfeited. The inalienable Aboriginal Freehold is granted as a communal title (where land is held collectively by a group, rather than by individuals), and is the strongest form of title in Australia. This title gives Aboriginal groups the power to control the direction and pace of development on their land. The dataset only includes Aboriginal Lands that are officially registered. More information is available at: http://www.ga.gov.au/metadata-gateway/metadata/record/42339/. Brazil indigenous landsThis data set displays the boundaries of areas designated as Indigenous Lands in Brazil. Indigenous Lands legally recognize indigenous peoples? perpetual rights of access, use, withdrawal, management, and exclusion over the land and associated resources. Alienation of the land is prohibited. However, commercial use of forest resources is permitted, but cutting trees for sale requires approval by the National Legislature. Rights to subsoil resources may be obtained only with the approval of the National Legislature and after consultation with the affected indigenous peoples. This data set includes Indigenous Lands that are officially registered and those at various stages of the registration process.Canada Aboriginal landsThis data set provides the boundaries of forest areas licensed to companies for forestry and is a compilation of provincial forest tenure data sets across Canada. Tenures for Nova Scotia are not provided, due to changes underway in forest management in that province, and will be added to this data set when available. Much of Canada?s logging activity occurs on Crown (often referred to as ?public?) land and is regulated by various provincial commercial forest tenure systems that allocate cutting rights to and confer obligations on recipients of the tenures. It is these tenure systems on Crown forest land that are the focus of this data product. The information in this data set was gathered in order to continue to develop an understanding of how much of Canada?s forest area is under commercial forest tenures, where these tenures (including the operating areas of major forest companies) are located, and who is most likely to control them. This information and these data sets are important because of the extent of tenures and the resulting logging activity over vast areas of Canada?s Crown forest land.Panama Comarcas landsNot currently available for downloadThis data set displays the boundaries of areas designated as comarcas in Panama. Comarcas are legally recognized semi-autonomous areas where indigenous peoples own the land and resources with rights of access, use, withdrawal, management, and exclusion. Although the Government retains ownership of subsoil resources, the indigenous community must be consulted by government and private organizations for proposed developments on their lands. The government and mining concessionaire are required to guarantee benefits to the community and compliance with sustainable development practices.New Zealand Maori landsThis data set displays the boundaries of areas designated as M?ori Lands. These areas include both M?ori freehold lands and M?ori customary lands. M?ori customary lands belong to the Crown but are communally held by M?ori in accordance with customary values and practices, generally referred to as tikanga M?ori. M?ori freehold lands are M?ori customary lands that have been converted, through application to the M?ori Land Court, to the titled, private possession of M?ori individuals or small groups (fewer than five owners). Most M?ori land falls under the category of M?ori freehold land. The Native Lands Act of 1862 created the M?ori Land Court, which oversees the administration of freehold land titles.Costa Rica indigenous territoriesThis data set displays the boundaries of the 24 legally-recognized and titled indigenous territories in Costa Rica.

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